David Lilenfeld Blog The intellectual property blog of David Lilenfeld

26Feb/160

Trademark Office: PRINCESS KATE and ROYAL KATE Unregistrable

Nieves & Nieves LLC, Applicant, filed an intent-to-use application to register the trademarks PRINCESS KATE and ROYAL KATE. The Trademark Trial and Appeal Board refused to register the trademarks PRINCESS KATE and ROYAL KATE for clothing, jewelry, handbags, and bedding on the grounds that the trademarks falsely suggest a connection with the Duchess of Cambridge, Kate Middleton. The Trademark Trial and Appeal Board found the trademarks to violate Section 2(a) and furthermore violated Section 2(c) because the trademarks include a name of a living person, Kate Middleton, without her consent.

Kate Middleton

Photo courtesy of Ricky Wilson

The Examining Attorney submitted evidence from foreign news sources, which had probative value because this case concerns perception of the United States public regarding the identity of a celebrity.

The Trademark Trial and Appeal Board determined the trademarks PRINCESS KATE and ROYAL KATE falsely suggested a connection between the Applicant and Kate Middleton by applying a four-part test:

(1) whether the trademarks are the same as or a close approximation of Kate Middleton's previously used name or identity;

(2) whether the trademarks would be recognized as such by purchasers, in that it points uniquely and unmistakably to Kate Middleton;

(3) whether she is not connected with the activities performed by the applicant under the trademarks; and

(4) whether Kate Middleton's name is of sufficient fame or reputation that when the trademarks are used with applicant’s goods, a connection with her would be presumed.

The Applicant argued that the trademarks PRINCESS KATE and ROYAL KATE are not similar to Kate Middleton’s name because she is a duchess and not a princess. However, a term can be considered the identity of a person even if her name is not used.

Various media sources have referred to Kate Middleton as “Princess Kate” and “Royal Kate” thus making the trademarks close approximations of the identity of Kate Middleton. The trademarks PRINCESS KATE and ROYAL KATE unmistakably refer to Kate Middleton because she was known as a fashion trendsetter.

The Trademark Trial and Appeal Board found that both the trademarks falsely suggested a connection with Kate Middleton and affirmed the Section 2 (a) refusal. The Board refused registration of the trademarks on the grounds that Kate Middleton, as a member of the British Royal Family, was the subject of public interest. Her identity was of sufficient fame that when the trademarks are used it is likely that people will connect them to her.

Section 2(c) bars registration of a trademark that has a name identifying a living person except by his or her written consent. Consent is required only if the person named in the trademark will be associated with the trademark either because:  (1) the person is so well known that the public would reasonably assume a connection between the person and the goods or services; or (2) the individual is publicly connected with the business in which the mark is used. It is important to note, however, that when the person is famous it is not necessary to show a connection between the goods and the person.

The Trademark Trial and Appeal Board held that the trademarks PRINCESS KATE and ROYAL KATE consisted of the name of a living person and because Kate Middleton has not consented to the use and registration of the names the TTAB refused to register the trademarks.

10Feb/160

Luxury Goods Maker Burberry Sues J.C. Penney for Trademark Infringement

Luxury goods maker Burberry has sued value-retailer J.C. Penney for trademark infringement and trademark dilution in the Southern District of New York. The suit alleges J.C. Penney is selling scarves and jackets which “exactly copy” the well-known “Burberry Check," for which Burberry has a number of federal trademark registrations.

In addition to trademark infringement and dilution claims, the Complaint alleges unfair competition and deceptive trade practices under federal and New York law and seeks damages, injunctive relief and attorney fees.

 

Lilenfeld PCLilenfeld PC Burberry Check

J.C. Penney accused scarfLilenfeld PC

 

 

 

 

6Feb/160

Trademark fight: NC State and KeukaCollege Battle Over WOLFPACK

Was @PackAthletics right to force @KeukaCollege to drop WOLFPACK as its nickname/trademark?

According to its website, North Carolina State University adopted the WOLFPACK nickname for their sports teams in 1921.  Fast forward to 2016 and apparently North Carolina State University thought it was time to act.  NC State “lawyered up” and compelled the small, upstate New York liberal arts college to drop WOLFPACK. Feeling cornered by the Big Bad Wolf, the college acquiesced and is now known as the Wolves. The colleges will not change its logo, which depicts a threatening canis lupus.

I used my Twitter account (David Lilenfeld Twitter post) to take an informal poll. An overwhelmingly 87 people voted that NC State overstepped, while only 12 people thought NC State did the right thing. My next idea is for the two to settle this on the basketball court – winner gets the name, loser rebrands. Game on!

David Lilenfeld

Twitter Poll Results -- Overwhelming

1Feb/160

Trademark Office Rules Dumbbells and Soccer Goals Unrelated

The Trademark Office reversed a Section 2 (d) refusal to register the trademark QUIK-CHANGE for dumbbell systems finding the trademark is not likely to cause confusion with the already registered trademark KWIK CHANGE for soccer goals. Plaintiff, Hoist Fitness System, applied to register the trademark QUIK-CHANGE for exercise equipment, mainly a dumbbell system with a handle, weights and a stand.

KWICK CHANGE soccer goal

KWICK CHANGE soccer goal

Quick-Change dumbbell system

Quick-Change dumbbell system

The Examining Attorney refused to register the trademark QUIK-CHANGE because the trademark was merely identical in appearance and would be found in the same sporting goods market as the trademark KWIK CHANGE. Applicant pointed out that the trademarks are spelled differently and that the equipment for soccer and weight training are different.

Although the Trademark Office agreed with the PTO that the trademarks have the same meaning and pronunciation, the Trademark Office recognized the trademark is on the Supplemental Register, which is an admission that the trademark is descriptive. The Trademark Office therefore took into consideration the descriptiveness of the trademark as well as the fact that the applicant’s trademark is at least suggestive of the fact that its weight is subject to change.

The Trademark Office also considered the issue of whether the goods are related and if they are related how closely they are related. The Board pointed out the intent-to-use applications and the non-use based registrations are not entitled to much weight. The most pertinent registrations are use-based registrations but these appear to be house marks. Even though they may show there is some relationship between sporting goods, it is hardly evidence that goods as different as soccer goals and dumbbells are closely related.

Just because goods are sold in the same stores or on the same websites does not prove that the goods are related. Soccer and exercise products can be sold on the same website like e-bay without demonstrating that the sources of the products are associated or related.

In conclusion, based on the nature of the trademarks and the fact that the goods are not closely related, the Trademark Office held that confusion was not likely between the trademark QUIK-CHANGE and the registered trademark KWIK CHANGE.

1Feb/160

“Consumer degree of care” — another likelihood of confusion factor

Here we move on to the seventh factor in the likelihood of confusion (based on the 9th Circuit's view).  How much care do consumers pay when purchasing the respective products of the parties?

7.  Consumer degree of care

“In analyzing the degree of care that a consumer might exercise in purchasing the parties' goods, the question is whether a ‘reasonably prudent consumer’ would take the time to distinguish between the two product lines. Surfvivor Media, Inc., 406 F.3d at 634. “[T]he standard used by the courts is the typical buyer exercising ordinary caution.

[W]hen the goods are expensive, the buyer can be expected to exercise greater care in his purchases . . . .”  Network Automation, Inc., 638 F.3d at 1152.  Again, the parties present conflicting evidence as to the degree of care consumers of their products are likely to exercise. Top Shelf’s expert opines that kombucha is a “niche product” and that the price point of Clearly Kombucha is high enough, relative to other bottled beverages, to foster a relatively greater degree of care among consumers. (See Silverman Rep. ¶¶ 55-56.) Top Shelf’s founder testifies that its clients are particularly health-conscious, and therefore are more discerning when choosing bottled beverages. (Cargle Decl. ¶ 20.) On the other hand, Clearly Canadian points to evidence showing that Top Shelf’s beverages have been sold at a variety of price points, ranging on the low end from $1.50 to $3.00. (See Supp. Resp. at 12-13).

“With respect to small, inexpensive goods . . . the consumer is likely to exercise very little care.” Surfvivor Media, Inc, 406 F.3d at 634; see also CytoSport, Inc. v. Vital Pharm., Inc., 617 F. Supp. 2d 1051, 1076 (E.D. Cal. 2009) (finding a low degree of care with respect to bottled drinks costing between $3.00 and $5.00). A jury reviewing the parties’ evidence could reasonably find that consumers purchasing Clearly Canadian and Clearly Kombucha beverages exercise a low degree of care. Therefore, for the purposes of summary judgment, this factor weighs in Clearly Food’s favor.

30Jan/160

“Clearly Canadian” – Likelihood of Confusion – Similarity of Marketing Channels

2.  Marketing channels

Here, there is evidence that both companies market and sell their beverages over the Internet through their own websites, third party retail sites, and Facebook. (See Zarrow Dep. at 51:24-52:5; Cargle Dep. at 83:21-25; Khan Dep. at 46:12-19; 91:15-92: 95:8-15.) Yet, “[g]iven the broad use of the Internet today, the same could be said for countless companies.” Playboy Enterprises, Inc. v. Netscape Commc'ns Corp., 354 F.3d 1020, 1028 (9th Cir. 2004). “Some use of the Internet for marketing . . . does not alone and as a matter of law constitute overlapping marketing channels.” Entrepreneur Media, Inc., 279 F.3d at 1151.

The parties hotly contest whether the two products would typically be stored in the same shelves, aisles, or general areas of a retail store. (See Mot. at 22 (contending that Clearly Kombucha must be located in the refrigerated section); Supp. Resp. (Dkt. # 94) at 10-11 (contending that Clearly Kombucha appears on warm shelves).) Because the court  must weigh the facts in the light most favorable to Clearly Food, the court assumes for the purposes of this motion that retail stores would choose to display Clearly Kombucha products near Clearly Canadian products more often than not, which weighs in favor of finding of likelihood of confusion. (See Billick Decl. Ex. I (restocking notes from 2013 showing that retail stores stocked Clearly Kombucha on warm shelves and next to bottled  water products such as Perrier, Smart Water, Vitamin Water, Evian, and Fiji, as well as next to flavored beverages such as Snapple and Sobe), Ex. J.) The significance of the potential adjacent storage, however, is blunted by the fact that Clearly Canadian is not currently sold in any brick and mortar retail stores. Clearly Food has recently engaged a sales and marketing company to market Clearly Canadian “to the top twenty-five grocery store chains across the United States,” and expects that Clearly Canadian will be sold in unspecified grocery stores in 2015. (2d Khan Decl. ¶¶ 3, 5.) However, it remains unclear     whether Clearly Canadian will be sold in similar retail stores as Clearly Kombucha, or in the same geographic region as Clearly Kombucha, in the near or intermediate future.  (See Zarrow Dep. at 27:21-28 (explaining that Clearly Kombucha was sold in limited

In sum, a reasonable jury could not find that the parties’ current marketing  channels “overlap to any significant degree.” See Entrepreneur Media, Inc., 279 F.3d at 1151. Future overlap, although possible, is speculative, and the minor existing overlap in Internet use is insignificant because the “shared use of a ubiquitous marketing channel does not shed much light on the likelihood of consumer confusion,” Network Automation, Inc. v. Advanced Sys. Concepts, Inc., 638 F.3d 1137, 1151 (9th Cir. 2011). Therefore, the court finds that this factor merits little weight in the likelihood of confusion analysis, and what weight it does merit benefits Top Shelf. Id.

3.  Relatedness of the goods

“Related goods are generally more likely than unrelated goods to confuse the public as to the producers of the goods.” GoTo.com, Inc. v. Walt Disney Co., 202 F.3d 1199, 1207 (9th Cir. 2000). “Related goods are those products which would be reasonably thought by the buying public to come from the same source if sold under the same mark.” Entrepreneur Media, Inc., 279 F.3d at 1147. The Ninth Circuit applies “a sliding scale approach as to the weight that relatedness will carry dependent upon the strength of the trademark holder’s mark.” Entrepreneur Media, Inc., 279 F.3d at 1147.

Clearly Food identifies the following undisputed similarities between the two products. To begin with the obvious, Clearly Canadian and Clearly Kombucha are single-serve, bottled beverages. (See Ledden Decl. Ex. 21.) Moreover, both products are  “sparkling” (carbonated) beverages, and are marketed as such. (See Dkt. # 47-4 (2014 presentation to Clearly Canadian investors); Billick Decl. (Dkt. # 95) Ex. A (a December,  2010 “Gourment California Foods Product Brief” identifying Clearly Kombucha’s “core position” as a “lightly sparkling” beverage), Ex. B (2009 business plan to market Top Shelf Kombucha as “the world’s first luxury sparkling elixir”), Ex. C (October 2013 email from Ms. Zarrow to a potential distributor describing Clearly Kombucha as a “sparkling, fermented, nonalcoholic tea”), Ex. D (2013 business plan describing Clearly Kombucha as a “sparkling fermented tea”), Ex. E, Ex. F at 3, Ex. G (“Brand Ambassador” handbook instructing marketers demonstrating Clearly Kombucha in retail stores to “[a]sk EVERY person that walks by if they would like a sample of  ‘sparkling tea’” unless the person already had kombucha in his or her cart).) Additionally, both products are “clear” beverages, and are marketed as such. (See Cargle Dep. (Dkt. # 57-3)

Finally, both products are perceived as healthy alternatives to other carbonated beverages, such as soda, and marketed as such. (See Ledden Decl. Ex. 8 (“2007 Survey”); Dkt. # 47-4 (2014 presentation to Clearly Canadian investors); 2012 Bus. Plan; Billick Decl. Ex. D (Clearly Kombucha 2013 business plan) at 9), Ex. E (notes from a Clearly Kombucha marketing demonstration).

Top Shelf points out that Clearly Kombucha differs from Clearly Canadian in that it is a flavored fermented tea rather than flavored water. (See Mot. at 22.) Top Shelf attempts to further distinguish the products by emphasizing the affirmative health benefits allegedly associated with kombucha, as well as the fact that Top Shelf targets a “niche” health-conscious demographic. (See Mot. at 21-23.) However, “the relatedness of each company’s prime directive isn’t relevant.” Brookfield Commc’ns, Inc. v. W. Coast Entm’t Corp., 174 F.3d 1036, 1056 (9th Cir. 1999). Rather, “the focus is on whether the consuming public is likely somehow to associate [the alleged infringer’s]  products with [the mark owner].” Id.see also Am. Int’l Group, Inc. v. Am. Int’l Bank, 926 F.2d 829, 832 (9th Cir. 1991).

Viewing the evidence in the light most favorable to Clearly Food, the court concludes that a jury could reasonably find that the consuming public is likely to associate the Clearly Kombucha product with the Clearly Canadian brand. The thrust of  Top Shelf’s argument is that the two brands do not directly compete for customers. But  even if a jury concluded that the two brands do not directly compete, a jury could still  reasonably find that the similarity of their products—namely, clear, sparkling, single-serve beverages—would likely result in consumer confusion between the brands and products. See American Int’l Group, Inc., 926 F.2d at 832 (concluding that although the parties were not direct competitors, customer confusion could result in light of the similarities between the financial services offered by the parties). Therefore, for summary judgment purposes, this factor weighs in Clearly Food’s favor.

30Jan/160

“Clearly Canadian” — Fraud on Trademark Office Analysis

In this blog post, David Lilenfeld breaks down the fraud section of the "Clearly Canadian" trademark infringement opinion. Defendant, Top Shelf, alleged that Plaintiff committed fraud on the Trademark Office, and therefore Plaintiff's trademark registration is not valid.  As discussed below, the Court rules that this is a jury question.

D.         Fraud

Top Shelf contends that Clearly Canadian’s trademark registration should be cancelled for fraud. (Mot. at 12-14.) A party who believes it has been harmed by a trademark’s registration may seek the cancellation of that trademark’s registration on certain specified grounds, including that the trademark was obtained by the commission of fraud on the United States Patent and Trademark Office (“Trademark Office”).  U.S.C. § 1064; see also 15 U.S.C. § 1119 (David Lilenfeld: This is a Cancellation Proceeding). “In any action involving a registered mark the court may . . . order the cancelation of registrations . . . .”). “When a trademark’s registration is cancelled, its owner is no longer entitled to the rights that flow from federal registration, including the presumption that the mark is valid.” Hokto Kinoko Co. v. Concord Farms, Inc., 738 F.3d 1085, 1097 (9th Cir. 2013)

(David Lilenfeld: here are the prima facie elements of a fraud claim) To succeed on a claim for cancellation based on fraud, Top Shelf “must adduce  evidence of (1) a false representation regarding a material fact; (2) the registrant’s  knowledge or belief that the representation is false; (3) the registrant’s intent to induce reliance upon the misrepresentation; (4) actual, reasonable reliance on the misrepresentation; and (5) damages proximately caused by that reliance.” Id. (citing Robi v. Five Platters, Inc., 918 F.2d 1439, 1444 (9th Cir. 1990)). (David Lilenfeld: A false representation in the original trademark application or an affidavit accompanying a renewal application may be grounds for cancellation if all five requirements are met. Id. Top Shelf, however, “bears a heavy burden of demonstrating that a trademark should be cancelled.” Id.see also Robi, 918 F.2d at 1444).

Top Shelf bases its fraud claim on the declaration by Clearly Food’s Chief Executive Officer, Robert Kahn, that accompanied the June 28, 2012, application to  renew the Clearly Canadian trademark. (See Mot. at 12-14.) (David Lilenfeld: As required by Section 8 of the Lanham Act, Mr. Kahn declared that the Clearly Canadian trademark “is in use in commerce on or in connection with the goods and/or services identified above, as evidenced by the attached specimen(s) showing the mark as used in commerce.”) (Request Ex. F (“Renewal”).) Mr. Kahn attached as a specimen a photograph of an empty plastic bottle of Clearly Canadian peach-flavored sparkling water. (See id.) This beverage had been purchased in Michigan in 2011 by an affiliate of Mr. Khan. (Khan Dep. 58:5-60:25.)

For the same reasons discussed in the preceding section, the court finds that questions of fact preclude a finding as to whether the Clearly Canadian trademark was in fact in use in commerce as of June 2012. See supra § III.C. Because Top Shelf cannot prove the first element—namely, that Mr. Kahn’s declaration contained a false representation regarding a material fact—summary judgment is inappropriate on this claim. See Celotex, 477 U.S. at 324. (David Lilenfeld: The Court isn't convinced yet).

Even assuming that the statement that the Clearly Canadian trademark was in use in commerce in June 2012 was false, Top Shelf fails to establish the second and third elements of fraud. “Deception must be willful to constitute fraud.” In re Bose Corp., 580  F.3d 1240, 1243 (Fed. Cir. 2009); see also Far Out Prods., Inc. v. Oskar, 247 F.3d 986, 996 (9th Cir. 2001) (holding that a trademark owner “can only be adjudicated to have filed a fraudulent [incontestability affidavit] if he acted with scienter”). (David Lilenfeld: again, a high burden for defendant to reach).

Mr. Kahn testified in deposition that, although he knew Clearly Food itself was not manufacturing  (David Lilenfeld: federally registered trademarks remain in force for 10 years; between the 9th and 10th year of registration, an owner must file a renewal application under Section 9 of the Lanham Act, which must be accompanied by a Section 8 declaration that the mark is in use in commerce.  See 15 U.S.C. §§ 1058) plastic bottles of Clearly Canadian beverages at the time he signed the declaration, he believed that the Clearly Canadian product was still being sold by third parties in commerce through 2011 (as shown by his affiliate’s then-recent purchase of the specimen bottle), and understood that such sales were sufficient to satisfy the Section 8 standard of use in commerce. (Khan Dep. 23:25-24:7; 61:1-25; 69:13-72:13.) As such, there are questions of fact as to whether Mr. Kahn knew the trademark was not being used in commerce as required by Section 8 and intended to mislead the Trademark Office as to that fact. (David Lilenfeld: sounds like the deposition of Mr. Kahn is in order). See In re Bose Corp., 580 F.3d at 1246 (finding that the registrant did not commit fraud when it filed a combined Section 8 and Section 9 affidavit stating that the trademark was in use in commerce where the registrant erroneously believed that the repairing of damaged previously sold goods and returning the repaired goods to the customers constituted use in commerce).

Top Shelf puts forth evidence suggesting that Mr. Kahn understood that Clearly Canadian itself needed to use the trademark in commerce in 2012 in order to avoid abandonment. (See, e.g. 10/2/12 Khan Email; 3/15/12 Khan Email; 12/22/11 Khan Email; Khan Dep. at 51:20-52:6.) The court, however, is not permitted to weigh the evidence or make credibility determinations at this stage. See Reeves, 530 U.S. at 150. (David Lilenfeld: the jury is supposed to decide questions of fact while the court decides questions of law).  Although deceptive intent may be inferred from indirect and circumstantial evidence, see In re Bose Corp., 580 F.3d at 1246, the court cannot say that a jury considering Top Shelf’s evidence could only reasonably find a willful intent to deceive. See Far Out Prods., Inc. v. Oskar, 247 F.3d 986, 996 (9th Cir. 2001) (finding that the defendants “did not even meet their initial burden in moving for summary judgment” because they “did not present any evidence of the affiant’s state of mind, including whether he acted in bad faith or with knowledge”). At trial, a jury may well find that Top Shelf has carried its “heavy burden” to show fraud. See Hokto Kinoko Co., 738 F.3d at 1097. (David Lilenfeld: there would need to be a number of helpful facts developed for Top Shelf to carry this burden). At this  juncture, however, the court finds that summary judgment is inappropriate. See Celotex,477 U.S. at 324; Hokto Kinoko Co., 738 F.3d at 1097 (declining to cancel a trademark for fraud where the challenger “adduced no evidence that [the registrant] knew of the misstatement . . . or intended to defraud the [Trademark Office]”).

 

30Jan/160

“Clearly Canadian” Trademark Opinion (part 2.) – trademark abandonment

In this post, David Lilenfeld continues to break down the court's opinion in trademark infringement case pitting CLEARLY CANADIAN v. CLEARLY KOMBUCHA.  This posts relates to the Court's opinion with respect to defendant's argument that plaintiff abandoned its CLEARLY CANADIAN trademark.

C.        Abandonment

(David Lilenfeld: a rare discussion on trademark abandonment). “To prove abandonment of a mark as a defense to a claim of trademark infringement, a defendant must show that there was: ‘(1) discontinuance of trademark use and (2) intent not to resume such use.’”Wells Fargo & Co. v. ABD Ins. & Fin. Servs., Inc., 758 F.3d 1069, 1072 (9th Cir. 2014), as amended (Mar. 11, 2014) (quoting  Electro Source, LLC v. Brandess-Kalt-Aetna Grp., Inc., 458 F.3d 931, 935 (9th Cir. 2006)); see also 15 U.S.C. § 1127(1). Non-use for three consecutive years constitutes prima facie evidence of abandonment. Herb Reed Enterprises, LLC v. Fla. Entm’t Mgmt., Inc., 736 F.3d 1239, 1247-48 (9th Cir. 2013); 15 U.S.C. § 1127(1). (David Lilenfeld: critical point here, since the term of non-use by plaintiff appears to be three years (2012-2015)). In the Ninth Circuit, non-use for three consecutive years creates only a rebuttal presumption of abandonment—it does not shift the burden of proof to the trademark owner. Abdul-Jabbar v. Gen. Motors Corp., 85 F.3d 407, 411 (9th Cir. 1996). A trademark owner can rebut the presumption of abandonment by showing valid reasons (David Lilenfeld: showing valid reason won't be hard here (bankruptcy)) for non-use or lack of intent to abandon the mark. Id.

“The standard for non-use is high.” Herb Reed Enterprises, LLC, 736 F.3d at 1247-48. “Non-use requires ‘complete cessation or discontinuance of trademark use.’” (quoting Electro Source, LLC, 458 F.3d at 936). The phrase “trademark use” means use that “includes placement on goods sold or transported in commerce; is bona fide; is made in the ordinary course of trade; and is not made merely to reserve a right in a mark.”1  Electro Source, LLC, 458 F.3d at 936 (quoting 15 U.S.C. § 1127). Even a “single instance of use is sufficient against a claim of abandonment of a mark if such use is made in good faith.” Wells Fargo & Co., 758 F.3d at 1072 (quoting Carter-Wallace, Inc. v. Procter & Gamble Co., 434 F.2d 794, 804 (9th Cir. 1970)).  (David Lilenfeld: the bar to prove trademark abandonment is set high, but Top Shelf might still prevail on lack of likelihood of confusion).

Evaluating whether a use is in “the ordinary course of trade” is “often an intensely factual undertaking.” Electro Source, LLC, 458 F.3d at 940. Courts must consider the “totality of the circumstances” to determine if genuine, albeit limited usage of the mark occurred “in the ordinary course of trade.” Id.Wells Fargo & Co., 758 F.3d at 1072.

(David Lilenfeld: Relevant factors include the “genuineness and commercial character of the activity, the determination of whether the mark was sufficiently public to identify or distinguish the marked [products] in an appropriate segment of the public mind as those of the holder of the mark, the scope of the [trademark] activity relative to what would be a commercially reasonable attempt to market the service [or product], the degree of ongoing activity of the holder to conduct the business using the mark, [and] the amount of business transacted.”)

Although “bona fide” is not defined in Section 1127, the Ninth Circuit has noted that “Black’s Law Dictionary provides two similar definitions for ‘bona fide’: ‘1. Made in good faith; without fraud or deceit. 2. Sincere; genuine.’” Electro Source, LLC, 458 F.3d at 936 (quoting Black’s Law Dictionary at 186 (8th ed. 2004)). The Ninth Circuit has also noted that “the term ‘bona fide’ in common parlance means ‘made or carried out in good faith; sincere.’”  Id. (quoting The American Heritage College Dictionary 158 (3d. ed. 2000)).

Because abandonment of a trademark is “in the nature of forfeiture, [it] must be strictly proved.” FreecycleSunnyvale v. Freecycle Network, 626 F.3d 509, 515 (9th Cir. 2010).  (David Lilenfeld: again, setting the bar highly for Top Shelf). The Ninth Circuit has not determined whether this high standard of proof requires“clear and convincing” evidence or a “preponderance of the evidence.” Id.see Grocery Outlet Inc. v. Albertson’s Inc., 497 F.3d 949, 954 (9th Cir. 2007) (separate concurrences disagreeing as to the applicable standard of proof). The court need not decide which standard of proof applies here because, viewing the evidence in the light most favorable  to Clearly Food, Top Shelf fails to carry its burden under either standard.(David Lilenfeld: the court bangs the gavel on Top Shelf's trademark abandonment argument). See Freecycle Sunnyvale, 626 F.3d at 515 (declining to decide which standard applied to a motion for summary judgment);Electro Source, LLC, 458 F.3d at 936 (same).

a.  Relevant facts (David Lilenfeld: facts pertinent to trademark abandonment ruling).

Top Shelf contends that the Clearly Canadian mark is presumptively abandoned because “there is no genuine dispute of material fact that there has not been any bona fide use of [the Clearly Canadian trademark] from 2008 to the present day.” (Mot. at 17.)

The relevant facts, taken in the light most favorable to Clearly Canadian, Reeves, 530 U.S. at 150, are as follows. CC Beverage’s last full-scale production run of beverages bearing the Clearly Canadian trademark occurred sometime in 2009. (Ledden Decl. Ex. 8 (“6/3/14 Khan Email”); Ledden Decl. Ex. 9 (“12/22/11 Khan Email”).) On September 4, 2009, Clearly shipped 432 cases of Clearly Canadian 20-ounce bottles to Paw Paw Wine Distributors (“Paw Paw”) in Michigan. (Bogen Decl. (Dkt. # 55) ¶ 5, Attach. A.) In turn, Paw Paw sold Clearly Canadian 20-ounce and 14-ounce beverages to retailers from 2009 through 2011. (Id. Attachs. B, C.) In an August 2009 transaction, GrayCo Sales Limited (“Grayco”), a beverages distributor in Ontario, Canada, sold approximately $225,000 worth of Clearly Canadian product to the retailer Big Lots. (Colley Dep. at 23:6-15; 24:19-25:3.)

Intrastate Distributors, Inc. (“Intrastate”), a beverage wholesale and manufacturing company located in Michigan, bottled Clearly Canadian product during 2011 and 2012.  (Dabish Decl. ¶¶ 2-3.) Graham Colley, the president of Grayco, maintained a trade booth at the Canadian National Exhibition in 2010 and 2011 featuring Clearly Canadian products. (2012 Bus. Plan. at 32-33 (“3/30/12 Colley Letter”).)  (David Lilenfeld: here the last use date by plaintiff was 2012).

(David Lilenfeld: court probably could have started fact discussion here since all that really matters at this point is plaintiff's date of last use of the trademark). In March, 2012, Graham Colley, the president of Grayco, negotiated a license with Clearly Food to sell Clearly Canadian beverages. (Colley Dep. at 32:22-33:1; 45:7-9; 47:15-23.) Under the license, Grayco was required to pay Clearly Food a royalty for  each case of product sold. (Id. at 46:10-47:8.) In 2012, Intrastate filled approximately 1,800 12-pack cases of 11-ounce bottles with Clearly Canadian product. (Dabish Decl. ¶ 5.) On August 14, 2012, Instrastate sold 1,872 cases of Clearly Canadian beverages (in raspberry and black cherry flavors) to Grayco. (Id. ¶¶ 5-6, Attachs. A, B.) The order totaled approximately $10,000.00, and was shipped to Grayco in Ontario, Canada, on August 15, 2012. (Id.; Colley Dep. at 33:15-18).) Grayco displayed and sold Clearly Canadian beverages during the 2012 Canadian National Exhibition. (3/30/12 Colley Letter.) This fair, which runs from mid-August to Labor Day, typically receives over 1.5 million attendees. (Id.) In October, 2012, Grayco sold 720 cases of Clearly Canadian beverages to an online retailer called  Beverages Direct, and transported the product to Beverages Direct in the United States. (Colley Dep. at 39:343:9; 66:11-24; 79:15-79; Khan Dep. at 79:21-80:6 (referencing a Grayco invoice dated October 23, 2012, to Beverages Direct).) In turn, Beverages Direct sold the Clearly Canadian product exclusively to retail purchasers located in the United States. (Colley Dep. at 91:6-92:4.)

In the summer of 2013, Intrastate sold another approximately $10,000.00 worth of Clearly Canadian product to Grayco. (Id. at 32:22-2; 67:1-17.) Grayco again sold several pallets worth of the beverage to Beverages Direct, and reserved the balance for the 2013 Canadian National Exhibition. (Id. at 67:1-17.)  (David Lilenfeld: so plaintiff's trademark continues in 2013 . . . different than the 2012 facts above).

Since then, Clearly Food’s 2014 online pre-sales campaign has generated over 10,000 orders, resulting in over 27,000 cases of product due to be shipped in 2015. (2d Khan Decl. ¶ 4.) Over 90% of those transactions are with customers in the United States.

Clearly Food has also received eight “full truckload” orders from seven different beverage distributors. (Id. ¶ 5.) As a result, Clearly Food will ship over 30,000 bottles of Clearly Canadian product in 2015. (David Lilenfeld: so we have only a two year or less period of non-use -- not going to be long enough to win for defendant). (Id.see also Billick Decl. Ex. N (invoices for the purchase orders).) Clearly Canadian will be sold directly to consumers at grocery stores  within those distributors’ networks. (2d Khan Decl. ¶ 5.)  Clearly Food has deployed various online, social media, and other marketing campaigns. (Khan Dep. at 46:12-19; 91:15-92:2; 95:8-15.)

b.  Application

Contrary to Top Shelf’s contention, Clearly Food’s evidence, viewed as a whole, shows that intermittent, yet appreciable commercial sales of Clearly Canadian beverages occurred from 2009 through the present. The court concludes that a jury considering this evidence could reasonably find that those sales are sufficient to preclude a finding that use of the trademark was discontinued. See Electro Source, LLC, 458 F.3d at 939  “Good faith nominal or limited commercial sales of trademarked goods are sufficient . . . to avoid abandonment[] where the circumstances legitimately explained the paucity of the sales.”) Specifically, a jury could find that the scope of trademark and business activity in which CC Beverage and Clearly Food engaged from 2009 to the present were commercially reasonable given the situation: namely, a brand transfer, during bankruptcy proceedings, by a declining business to a start-up company seeking to revitalize the brand. See Electro Source, LLC, 458 F.3d at 939 (finding no abandonment because a struggling business’s efforts to exhaust its remaining inventory prior to dissolution constituted “core trademark activities that necessarily contemplate trading upon the goodwill of the mark”). (David Lilenfeld: Even a “single instance of use is sufficient against a claim of abandonment of a mark if such use is made in good faith,” Wells Fargo & Co., 758 F.3d at 1072). Clearly Food puts forth evidence of multiple uses arguably made in good faith. Although Top Shelf adduces evidence suggesting that the sales made immediately after Clearly Food acquired the trademark were made solely for the purpose of preserving the mark, the court may not weigh the evidence on summary judgment. See Reeves, 530 U.S. at 150; (Ledden Decl. Ex. 4 (“10/2/12 Khan Email”), Ex. 5 (“3/15/12 Khan Email”), Ex. 9 (“12/22/11 Khan Email”); Khan Dep. at 51:20-52:6.) As such, when evidence of all Clearly Canadian sales between 2009 and the present is taken into account, summary judgment on the issue of non-use is inappropriate.  (David Lilenfeld: the court makes this analysis look even, suggesting it was not even a close call).

In its reply brief, Top Shelf contends for the first time that sales to third-party retailers or distributors do not constitute use in commerce within the meaning of the Lanham Act because such sales are not uses by or for the benefit of the trademark owner.  (Reply (Dkt. # 102) at 4-5.) Top Shelf bases its argument on two twenty-year-old opinions by the Trademark Trial and Appeal Board (“TTAB”) that stated: “A party cannot defend against a claim of abandonment by relying on some residual goodwill generated through post-abandonment sales of the product by distributors or retailers.” Parfums Nautee Ltd., 22 U.S.P.Q.2d 1306 (P.T.O. Jan. 15, 1992); (David Lilenfeld: Societe Des Produits Marnier Lapostolle, 10 U.S.P.Q.2d 1241, at *4 n.5 (P.T.O. Feb. 10, 1989) (finding a presumption of abandonment when the last shipment of trademarked products to the United States occurred more than three years prior, despite the fact that retailers continued to sell the product thereafter)).

Top Shelf does not explain how these TTAB rulings fit into Ninth Circuit jurisprudence regarding abandonment.2  (See Reply.) More importantly, in the court is aware of only one district court in this circuit that has followed those rulings.  See Zamacona v. Ayvar, No. CV0702767ABCFMOX, 2009 WL 279073, at *2 (C.D. Cal. Feb. 3, 2009); but see Soweco, Inc. v. Shell Oil Co., 617 F.2d 1178, 1189 (5th Cir. 1980) (finding no abandonment) (David Lilenfeld: this argument came too late).

Clearly Food has not had an opportunity to respond to Top Shelf’s newly raised argument, and because, as explained below, consideration of the argument would not change the outcome of this motion, the court declines to decide the issue at this time. See Provenz v. Miller, 102 F.3d 1478, 1483 (9th Cir. 1996) (stating that a court should not consider new issues or evidence submitted in a reply brief without giving the opposing party an opportunity to respond).

Even if the court agreed that Clearly Food could not rely on sales by unaffiliated retailers or distributors, summary judgment on the abandonment claim would not be appropriate. (David Lilenfeld: agreed -- use in commerce is use in commerce, whether by the trademark owner or a third-party). It is undisputed that Clearly Canadian beverages were sold in the United States by or on behalf of Clearly Canadian to Paw Paw in September 2009, and to Beverages Direct in October 2012. (See Bogen Decl. ¶ 5, Attach. A; Colley Dep. at 39:3-43:9; 66:11-24; 79:15-79: Khan Dep. at 79:21-80:6.); Star-Kist Foods, Inc. v. P.J. Rhodes & Co., 769 F.2d 1393, 1396 (9th Cir. 1985); 15 U.S.C. §1127.

30Jan/160

“Clearly Canadian” Makes for a Clearly Good Trademark Opinion

David Lilenfeld comments on this trademark infringement opinion, in which the owners of trademarks CLEARLY CANADIAN and CLEARLY KOMBUCHA do battle.

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT WESTERN DISTRICT OF WASHINGTON

THE CLEARLY FOOD & BEVERAGE CO., INC.,

Plaintiff,

v.

TOP SHELF BEVERAGES, INC.,

Defendant.

ORDER GRANTING IN PART AND DENYING IN PART SUMMARY JUDGMENT

I.      INTRODUCTION

Before the court is Defendant Top Shelf Beverages, Inc.’s (“Top Shelf”) motion for summary judgment. (See Mot. (Dkt. # 47).) (David Lilenfeld: we learn right away what the case is about; have you already formed an opinion?) This is a trademark case involving two brands of bottled beverages: “Clearly Canadian” sparkling water and “Clearly Kombucha” fermented tea. (David Lilenfeld: according to wikipedia, Kombucha refers to any of a variety of fermented, lightly effervescent sweetened black or green tea drinks that are commonly intended as functional beverages). Having considered the submissions of the parties, the balance of the record, and the relevant law, and deeming oral argument unnecessary, the court GRANTS in part and DENIES in part Top Shelf’s motion for summary judgment.

II.      BACKGROUND

Unless otherwise noted, the following facts are undisputed. Plaintiff The Clearly Food & Beverage Co. (“Clearly Food”) owns the trademark “Clearly Canadian,” United  States Trademark Registration No. 1,697,898, as used on “flavored mineral waters, fruit flavored mineral waters, non-flavored mineral waters, carbonated mineral waters, non-carbonated mineral waters, bottled drinking waters, spring waters, soft drinks and fruit juices.” (Resp. (Dkt. # 54)) at 4; Ledden Decl. (Dkt. # 47-3) Ex. 2 (“Assignment”).)

Clearly Food obtained this trademark from the now-defunct Clearly Canadian Beverage Corporation (“CC Beverage”) in January 2012. (David Lilenfeld: out of bankruptcy is always an interesting way to acquire trademark rights). (See Assignment.) CC Beverage sold bottles of flavored sparkling water under the brand name “Clearly Canadian.” (Req. for Not. (Dkt. # 49) Ex. E (“Trustee’s Rep.”).) After struggling for several years to compete in the beverage market (David Lilenfeld: which we all know is insanely competitive), CC Beverage filed for bankruptcy in March 2010. (Id.; Req. for Not. Ex. D (“Bank. Filing”).) In January, 2012, the Clearly Canadian trademark was sold to Clearly Food on behalf of CC Beverage’s secured creditors. (Ledden Decl. Ex. 1 5    (“Not. of Seizure”).) Although by that time the product was no longer being manufactured (David Lilenfeld: how long had the trademark been unused -- an important issue), Clearly Food intended to “reintroduce Clearly Canadian” by “bringing back the original legacy line in its premium glass teardrop bottle (6+ flavors).” (David Lilenfeld: this sounds like there may be a trademark tacking issue here) Decl. Ex. 3 (“Khan 8/23/11 Email”), see also Ex. 14 (“2012 Bus. Plan”) (detailing Clearly Food’s product development and pricing, marketing, sales, and distribution strategies, with a goal to “enter full-scale commercial production by March 2013 for North America”).)

Since then, manufacturing of Clearly Canadian beverages in limited quantities has resumed. (Dabish Decl. (Dkt. # 56) ¶¶ 2-5.) (David Lilenfeld: again, how long was the non-use period?). Bottles of Clearly Canadian sparkling water have been sold online. (Colley Dep. (Dkt. # 57-1) at 91:6-92:4.) Clearly Food is engaged in an online pre-sales campaign directed at consumers, and has also received larger-scale orders from several beverage distributors. (2d Khan Decl. (Dkt. # 93-13) at ¶¶ 3-5.) (David Lilenfeld: Here an important fact to keep in mind). Clearly Food plans to begin selling its products in retail grocery stores in 2015.  (Lilenfeld PC: it seems that the period of non-use was roughly three years (from 2012 to 2015)).

Top Shelf was founded by Caleb Cargle and Alison Zarrow in 2009. (David Lilenfeld: could be setting-up a senior user debate). (Cargle Decl. (Dkt. # 47-1) ¶ 2; see generally Cargle Dep. (Dkt. # 57-3) at 35:17-37:19.) Top Shelf currently sells a flavored kombucha beverage under the trademarked label “Clearly Kombucha.” (Cargle Dep. ¶ 1.) Kombucha is a drink brewed from green tea and then fermented with a symbiotic colony of bacteria and yeast. (Id. ¶ 16.) Mr. Cargle and Ms. Zarrow have developed a unique type of kombucha that is “clear.” (Id. ¶ 7.) That is, due to the filtration process used during brewing, their kombucha is “free from solid ‘floaties’ typically associated with kombucha [that are] . . . caused by the symbiotic colony of bacteria and yeast.” (Id. ¶¶ 6-7.)

The co-founders originally sold their product under the brand “Top Shelf Kombucha.” (Id. ¶ 9.) They marketed Top Shelf Kombuhca as a high-end or “premium” mixer and non-alcoholic substitute, and sold it in a miniature champagne bottle. (Id. ¶ 8.)  (David Lilenfeld: note that no first use date for Top Shelf's use of CLEARLY KOMBUCHA is revealed yet).

Although supplies were limited by their production capabilities, they believed the sales results “showed promise.” (Id. ¶ 10.)  At the end of 2010, the co-founders changed strategies. (Id. ¶ 12; Zarrow Dep. (Dkt. # 57-5) at 9:11-17.) After consulting with brand advisors, they decided to differentiate their product from its competitors based on its “clear” character. (Cargle Decl. ¶ 12; Zarrow Dep. at 12:16-24.) They also decided that they wanted Top Shelf to be recognized as a socially conscious brewer with transparent manufacturing practices.  (Cargle Decl. ¶ 13)

To reflect those goals, they decided to change the name of their product to “Clearly Kombucha.” (Id.) (David Lilenfeld: Top Shelf changed to CLEARLY KOMBUCHA toward end of 2010). The co-founders applied for a federal trademark registration in November 2010, and the “Clearly Kombucha” mark was published for opposition in April 2011. (Req. for Not. Exs. A, B.) After the mark was published (David Lilenfeld: how soon after?), the Clearly Kombucha brand launched in Ralph’s grocery stores throughout California. (Cargle Decl. ¶ 14.) Clearly Kombucha beverages are now sold at various retailers, including, among others, Safeway stores in Northern California and the Pacific Northwest, Ralph’s stores in southern California, a few Whole Foods grocery stores in Northern California, and PCC natural food stores in Washington and Oregon. (Cargle Dep. at 73:3-74-12; Zarrow Dep. at 27:21-28.) Clearly Kombucha is also available for purchase over the Internet. (Cargle Dep. at 83:21-25.)

(David Lilenfeld: the trademarks and goods seem different enough that I would not expect to see a likelihood of confusion, but more facts to come). In September,2013, Clearly Food filed this action against Top Shelf, bringing claims for trademark infringement under the Lanham Act § 32, 15 U.S.C. § 1114, unfair competition under the Lanham Act § 43(a), 15 U.S.C. § 1125(a), trademark dilution under Lanham Act § 43(c), 15 U.S.C. § 1125(c), and trademark infringement and unfair competition under Washington State law. (See generally Compl. (Dkt. # 1).) Top Shelf’s Motion for summary judgment on all claims is now before the court. (See Mot.)

III.      ANALYSIS

A.        Summary Judgment Standard

Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 56 permits a court to grant summary judgment where the moving party demonstrates (1) the absence of a genuine issue of material fact and (2) entitlement to judgment as a matter of law. Celotex Corp. v. Catrett, 477 U.S. 317, 322 (1986); see also Galen v. Cnty. of L.A., 477 F.3d 652, 658 (9th Cir. 2007). The moving party bears the initial burden of showing the absence of a genuine issue of material fact. Celotex, 477 U.S. at 323.  (David M. Lilenfeld: standard MSJ discussion).

If the moving party does not bear the ultimate burden of persuasion at trial, it can show the absence of an issue of material fact in two ways: (1) by producing evidence negating an essential element of the nonmoving party’s case, or (2) by showing that the nonmoving party lacks evidence of an essential element of its claim or defense. Nissan Fire & Marine Ins. Co. v. Fritz Cos., 210 F.3d 1099, 1106 (9th Cir. 2000). If the moving party will bear the ultimate burden of persuasion at trial, it must establish a prima facie showing in support of its position on that issue. UA Local 343 v. Nor-Cal Plumbing, Inc., 48 F.3d 1465, 1471 (9th Cir. 1994). That is, the moving party must present evidence that, if uncontroverted at trial, would entitle it to prevail on that issue. Id. at 1473.

If the moving party meets its burden of production, the burden then shifts to the nonmoving party to identify specific facts from which a factfinder could reasonably find in the nonmoving party’s favor. Celotex, 477 U.S. at 324; Anderson v. Liberty Lobby, Inc., 477 U.S. 242, 252 (1986). In determining whether the factfinder could reasonably find in the nonmoving party’s favor, “the court must draw all reasonable inferences in favor of the nonmoving party, and it may not make credibility determinations or weigh the evidence.” Reeves v. Sanderson Plumbing Prods., Inc., 530 U.S. 133, 150 (2000).  (David Lilenfeld: Court providing a thorough discussion of MSJ standard).

B.        Judicial Notice

Top Shelf requests that the court take judicial notice (David Lilenfeld: why didn't Top Shelf just submit the documents) of the following documents:

(1) Top Shelf’s Trademark Application for the Clearly Kombucha mark, (2) the Notice of Publication of the Clearly Kombucha mark, (3) the Trademark Registration Certificate for the Clearly Kombucha mark, (4) the Combined Declaration of Use and/or Exclusable Nonuse /Application for Renewal of Registration of a Mark under Sections 8 & 9 for the Clearly Canadian mark, (5) the Proposal under the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act filed in March 2010 by CC Beverage, and (6) the Trustee’s Report to Creditors filed in In the Matter of the Proposal of Clearly Canadian Beverage Corporation, dated March 17,  2010. (See Req. for Not. Exs. A-F.) Top Shelf obtained the trademark documents from the U.S. Patent and Trademark Electronic Search System, and obtained the bankruptcy documents from the Supreme Court of British Columbia (Vancouver Registry). (Id. ¶¶ 6- 7.)

Rule 201 of the Federal Rules of Evidence permits a federal court to take judicial notice of a fact that is not subject to “reasonable dispute” because it is “capable of accurate and ready determination by resort to sources whose accuracy cannot reasonably questioned.” Fed. R. Evid. 201(b)(2). (David Lilenfeld: seems like a detour from the main trademark issues). The public records of administrative agencies   and other courts are appropriate matters for judicial notice. Reyn’s Pasta Bella, LLC v. Visa USA, Inc., 442 F.3d 741, 746 n.6 (9th Cir. 2006) (taking notice of court filings); see also Dahon N. Am., Inc. v. Hon, No. 2:11-CV-05835-ODW, 2012 WL 1413681, at *8 (C.D. Cal. Apr. 24, 2012) (taking judicial notice of documents filed on the United States trademark website); CDx Diagnostics Inc. v. Histologics LLC, No. CV 13-7909-DOC NBX, 2014 WL 3347525, at *3 (C.D. Cal. July 7, 2014) (collecting cases taking judicial notice of documents from administrative agencies). Clearly Food has not objected to Top Shelf’s request. Accordingly, for the purposes of this motion, the court grants Top Shelf’s request for judicial notice.  (David Lilenfeld: typically courts just do it without explanation; maybe plaintiff challenged it).

29Jan/160

Trademark Office Affirms Refusal to Register MAN O’WAR for Golf Equipment

Centex/Taylor, LLC filed an application to register the trademark MAN O’WAR for golf equipment. The trademark was refused under Section 2 (d) of the Trademark Act, 15 U.S.C. § 1052 (d) on the grounds that it resembled the already registered mark, MANOWAR, and thus is likely to cause confusion or deception.

The Examining Attorney presented evidence to show Centex/Taylor’s golf equipment and the already registered clothing items are related through third-party registrations. The Examining Attorney successfully demonstrated that the entities had registered a single mark for both golf items and clothing items. According to In re Albert Trostel & Sons Co., 29 USPQ2d 1783 (TTAB 1993), third-party registrations, which include different items and which are based on use in commerce, suggest that the goods may have emanated from a single source.

Man O'War posted by David Lilenfeld

Man O'War (courtesy Wikipedia)

Centex/Taylor admitted the same registrant often offers golf equipment and clothing items with identical trademarks. Also, past registrations serve to suggest that the goods emanate from the same source. Centex/Taylor’s arguments concerning use in the marketplace of the registrant’s mark are not persuasive. An applicant is not permitted to restrict the scope of the goods covered in the registrant’s registration by extrinsic evidence or unsupported statements. Therefore, Centex/Taylor’s unsupported statements do not rebut the Examining Attorney’s belief that these goods are related. Furthermore, since the registered goods are not limited to any specific channels of trade, there would be an overlap in trade channels.

While the appearance of Centex/Taylor’s trademark differs slightly from the trademark in the registration mainly because of an apostrophe in Centex/Taylor’s mark, the literal portion of the trademark is identical and the trademark sounds the same. Thus, Centex/Taylor did not persuade the TTAB that consumers would think of a racehorse when the mark is used in connection with golf equipment.

“TTAB ultimately affirmed the refusal to register because the marks are confusingly similar, the goods are related and the channels of trade are overlapping.  A fairly straightforward decision after all,” said David Lilenfeld, founder of intellectual property law firm, Lilenfeld PC.


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